DISASTER MEDICINE No. 3•2023
Organization of First Aid to Wounded Servicemen in the Zone of Armed Conflict
Solosin V.V. 1, Kuzmin S.A. 1, Vyaltsin S.V. 1, Grigor’eva L.K. 1
1 Orenburg State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Orenburg, Russian Federation
UDC [355.726:356.33] «364»
Summary. The objectives of the study are to analyze the role of knowledge and skills acquired by servicemen when they render first aid to the wounded in combat conditions; to study the structure of sanitary losses in a military unit in the zone of Special Military Operation.
Materials and research methods. Materials of the study are the experience of first aid in combat conditions. On the battlefield, various medical means of defense were used to provide first aid to the wounded. Soldiers, who were wounded, used first aid kits individual medical AI-3-1BC as a means of self-help. Sanitary straps, cloak tents and improvised means were used for medical evacuation of the wounded to a safe zone. Belts, ropes and other available materials were used as improvised means. In the field, the servicemen were trained to: search for the wounded; in case of various external bleeding — to apply hemostatic tourniquets, tourniquets, compression bandages, aseptic bandages on wounds; in case of injuries — to immobilize limbs. In case of wounds and traumas, intramuscular injection of anesthetic agents contained in a syringe-tube was performed. Medical evacuation of the wounded to a safe zone was carried out with observance of safety measures — both for the wounded and for the first aid provider.
Research methods were analytical, statistical and field observation methods.
Results of the study and their analysis. In the zone of the Special Military Operation the enemy actively uses remote and combined methods of defeat, which creates difficulties in the medical evacuation of wounded servicemen from the battlefield. During the first two hours after being wounded, about 11.0% of the wounded were received at triage points; between two and 6 hours, no more than 11.0% of the wounded were received. Most of the wounded arrived at triage points at later dates. In the structure of sanitary losses, the share of shrapnel wounds was 79.0%; bullet wounds — 10.0%; non-combat-related injuries and somatic diseases — 11.0%. The wounds were mixed and combined by nature. The share of severe wounds amounted to 23.0%; the share of moderate wounds — 50.0; the share of light wounds — 27.0%.
It is concluded that timely and competent rendering of first aid to the wounded on the line of contact with the enemy is of paramount importance for saving lives of servicemen.
Keywords: armed conflict, first aid, life-threatening conditions, medical evacuation, servicemen, Special Military Operation, wounded person
Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest
For citation: Solosin V.V., Kuzmin S.A., Vyaltsin S.V., Grigor’eva L.K. Organization of First Aid to Wounded Servicemen in the Zone of Armed Conflict. Meditsina Katastrof = Disaster Medicine. 2023;3:53-56 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.33266/2070-1004-2023-3-53-56
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The material was received 01.06.23; the article after peer review procedure 15.08.23; the Editorial Board accepted the article for publication 23.09.23