DISASTER MEDICINE No. 2•2022
New Coronavirus Pandemic Worldwide: Some Lessons From Covid-19 Control
Pshenichnaya N.Y. 1, Lizinfeld I.A. 1, Zadorozhnyy A.V. 1
1 Central Research Institute of Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor, Moscow, Russian Federation
Abstract. The aim of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of COVID-19 epidemic process in selected countries of the world during the first pandemic wave in 2020 and during the rise of SARS-CoV2 variant Omicron.
Materials and research methods. Analysis of the COVID-19 epidemic process was based on data from the Wordometers website (https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries). In addition, scientific and popular science articles and official documents on the history, epidemiology, and response to the pandemic in different countries of the world in 2020-2022 were analyzed. The authors’ own observations were also used.
Results of the study and their analysis. Restrictive measures adopted in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), mass screening of the population, observation of those arriving in the country and hospitalization of all those infected made it possible to virtually reduce the circulation of the virus to zero. In the Russian Federation, timely simultaneous epidemic control measures throughout the country resulted in a significant decline in the intensity of the epidemic, both early in the pandemic and after local Omicron transmission, and prevented explosive growth of cases. In the USA, Italy and Sweden, untimely or lenient restrictive measures and low testing during selected periods of the pandemic led to an avalanche of cases and deaths.
Thus the epidemic process of COVID1-9 in the analysed countries depended on the timeliness, duration and extent of restrictive and quarantine measures.
Keywords: anti-epidemic measures, COVID-19 pandemic, epidemic process, Italy, restrictive measures, People’s Republic of China, Russian Federation, SARS-CoV2 Omicron, Sweden, United States of America
For citation: Pshenichnaya N.Y., Lizinfeld I.A., Zadorozhnyi A.V. New Coronavirus Pandemic Worldwide: Some Lessons From Covid-19 Control. Meditsina Katastrof = Disaster Medicine. 2022;2:26-31 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.33266/2070-1004-2022-2-26-31
- Hoperskaya L.L., Pshenichnaya N.Yu. Coronavirus: Foreign Policy Dimension. Voprosy Politologii = Issues of Politology. 2020;10;8:2506-2523 (In Russ.).
- Farsalinos, K., Poulas, K., Kouretas, D., Vantarakis, A., Leotsinidis, M., Kouvelas, D., … & Tsatsakis, A. Improved Strategies to Counter the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lockdowns vs. Primary and Community Healthcare. Toxicology Reports. 2021;8:1-9.
- Saba T., Abunadi I., Shahzad M.N., & Khan A.R. Machine Learning Techniques to Detect and Forecast the Daily Total COVID-19 Infected and Deaths Cases under Different Lockdown Types. Microscopy Research and Technique. 2021;84;7:1462-1474.
- Cherry J.D. The Chronology of the 2002–2003 SARS Mini Pandemic. Pediatric Respiratory Reviews. 2004;5;4:262-269.
- Anderson R.M., Fraser C., Ghani A.C., Donnelly C.A., Riley S., Ferguson N.M., … & Hedley A.J. Epidemiology, Transmission Dynamics and Control of SARS: the 2002–2003 Epidemic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences. 2004;359;1447:1091-1105.
- Undiagnosed Pneumonia – China (HU): RFI. ProMED-mail. 2019;30 Dec: 1230.6864153.
- The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China, 2020[J]. China CDC Weekly. 2020;2;8:113-122. doi: 10.46234/ccdcw2020.032.
- World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). 2020.
- On the Approval of the Sanitary And Epidemiological Rules SP 3.1.3597-20 “Prevention of a New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)”: Decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation dated May 22, 2020 No. 15 (In Russ.).
- On Strengthening Measures Aimed at Preventing the Importation and Spread on the Territory of the Russian Federation of a New Strain of СVID-19: Decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation dated December 04, 2021 No. 32 (In Russ.).
- Capobianchi M.R., Rueca M., Messina F., Giombini E., Carletti F., Colavita F., … & Bartolini B. Molecular Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 from the First Case of COVID-19 in Italy. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2020;26;7:954-956.
- Paterlini M. On the Front Lines of Coronavirus: The Italian Response to COVID-19. Bmj. 2020;Mar16;368.
- Nacoti M., Ciocca A., Giupponi A., Brambillasca P., Lussana F., Pisano M., … & Montaguti C. At the Epicenter of the Covid-19 Pandemic and Humanitarian Crises in Italy: Changing Perspectives on Preparation and Mitigation. NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery. 2020;1;2.
- Semenov A.V., Pshenichnaya N.Yu. Lessons from the COVID-19 Epidemic in Italy. Infektsiya i Immunitet = Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2020;10;3:410-420.
- Smirnov A.V., Kolesnikov V.V., Artebyakin S.V., & Yumanov A.P. The Experience of the Medical Group in Providing Medical Assistance to the Republic of Italy in the Fight against a New Coronavirus Infection. Izvestiya Rossiyskoy Voenno-Meditsinskoy Akademii. 2021;40;S2:138-143.
- Shvedskiy Sindrom. K Chemu Privel Otkaz Stokgol’ma ot Karantina? (04.06.2020) // URL: https://aif.ru/health/coronavirus/shvedskiy_sindrom_k_chemu_privel_otkaz_stokgolma_ot_karantina? [accessed 10.04.2022].
- Michael D. Shear, Abby Goodnough, Sheila Kaplan, Sheri Fink, Katie Thomas and Noah Weiland. The Lost Month: How a Failure to Test Blinded the U.S. to Covid-19. The New Youk Times, published March 28, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/28/us/testing-coronavirus-pandemic.html [accessed 10.04.2022].
The material was received 13.04.22; the article after peer review procedure 21.06.22; the Editorial Board accepted the article for publication 23.06.22