Original article


Metro Disasters: Characteristics of Sanitary and Irretrievable Losses Depending on Type and Conditions of Emergency Occurence

Download the article in pdf format

Aleksanin S.S. 1, Magdich I.A. 2, Petrov V.P. 2, Sukhoterin D.M. 2, Rybnikov V.Yu. 1, Pyatibrat A.O.1


1 Nikiforov Russian Centre of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

2 St. Petersburg State Medical University Pediatrician, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

UDK 614.1 «3635»

Pp. 33-37


Abstract. The purpose of the study is to characterize the sanitary and irretrievable losses in an emergency situation in the metro, depending on its type and conditions of its occurrence.

Materials and methods of research. The data on the 50 most significant emergencies in the Russian Federation and abroad in 1939-2018 were analyzed. The analysis included: calculation of parameters of feature variation and t-test of Student for independent samples; calculation of random variable variance (F) and variance analysis (ANOVA). The arithmetic mean values and errors of the average indicators (M±m); median (Me); quartile range of variables equal to the difference between the values of the 75th and 25th percentiles (IQR) are given.

Research results and their analysis. The greatest sanitary losses were recorded in the case of a terrorist attack in the metro, while the second and third places were taken by sanitary losses in case of fire and rolling stock accidents, respectively. Irretrievable losses were mostly recorded in case of a fire in the metro. The analysis determined the average number of victims in the most typical emergencies in the metro.

It is noted that the nature of sanitary losses differs depending on the type of emergency (rolling stock accident, fire, terrorist act, accident of lifting device and infrastructure), the action of striking factors (explosion wave, thermal damage, smoke) and the localization of the emergency (station, escalator, car).

The analysis of losses in the 50 largest emergencies in the metro in 1939-2018 allowed us to calculate the forecast indicators of irretrievable and sanitary losses depending on the type of emergency.


Key words: irretrievable losses, localization of emergencies, metro, sanitary losses, types of emergency situations in the metro (on railway transport)


For citation: Aleksanin S.S., Magdich I.A., Petrov V.P., Sukhoterin D.M., Rybnikov V.Yu., Pyatibrat A.O. Metro Disasters: Characteristics of Sanitary and Irretrievable Losses Depending on Type and Conditions of Emergency Occurence. Meditsina katastrof = Disaster Medicine. 2020; 1: 33-37 (In Russ.).




1. Aleksanin S.S., Rybnikov V.Yu., Evdokimov V.I., Guzd Yu.V., Bashinskii O.A. Methodological Aspects of Creating Mobile Medical Teams at Russian Emercom for Mitigating Consequences of Emergency Situations. Ekologiya cheloveka = Human Ecology, 2017; 11: 3-9 (In Russ).

2. Avidan V., Hersch M., Armon Y., Spira R., Aharoni D., Reissman P., Schecter W. Blast Lung Injury: Clinical Manifestations, Treatment, and Outcome. American J. of Surgery. 2005; 190: 945-950.

3. DePalma R.G., Burris D., Champion H. R., Hodgson M. Blast Injuries. New England J. of Medicine. 2005; 352: 335-342.

4. Wolf S.J., Bebarta V.S., Bonnett C.J., Pons P., Cantill S. Blast Injuries. Lancet. 2009; 374: 405-410.

5. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/ (In Russ).

6. URL: https://ria.ru/ (In Russ).

7. Shvetsov A., Shvetsova S., Kozyrev V.A., Spharov V.A., Sheremet N.M. The «Car-bomb» as a Terrorist Tool at Metro Stations, Railway Terminals and Airports. J. of Transportation Security. 2017; 10; 1-2: 31-43

8. Larcher M., Casadei F., Solomos G. Influence of Venting Areas on the Air Blast Pressure Inside Tubular Structures Like Railway Carriages. J. of Hazardous Materials. 2010; 183; 1/3: 839-846.

9. On Transport Security. Federal law of 09.02.2007 No. 16-FZ. URL: Official website of the Federal Agency for railway transport. Mode of access: http://www.roszeldor.ru/media/documents/fz_16.rtf (date accessed: 10.05.2019) (In Russ).

10. Shvetsov A.V. Aspects of Transport Security on the Moscow Metro. Transportnoe delo Rossii = Transport Business of Russia. 2015; 4: 147-149 (In Russ.).

11. Fisun A.Ya., Samokhvalov I.M., Boykov A.A., Parfyonov V.E., Badalov V.I., Kipor G.V. Liquidation of Medical and Sanitary Consequences of Terrorist Act: Event’s Chronology and Clinic of Injuries. Meditsina Katastrof = Disaster Medicine. 2018; 2: 22-24 (In Russ).


The material was received 20.12.19; the article after peer review procedure 18.02.20; the Editorial Board accepted the article for publication 11.03.20