DISASTER MEDICINE No. 4•2014 Download the journal
ORGANIZATION AND TACTICS OF DISASTER MEDICINE SERVICE
1. Goncharov S.F., Grebenyuk B.V., Kryukov V.I., Chubaiko V.G., Radchenko I.V. Overall Results of All-Russian Service for Disaster Medicine Headquarters’ Activity in 1994-2014 and its Short-Term Tasks
The overall results of All-Russian Service for Disaster Medicine Headquarters’ Activity over the past 20 years are presented. The main directions of development and perfection of the activity are discussed, the challenges facing the Headquarters are defined and the ways of addressing the issues are blueprinted. The tasks and prospects of future activities are formulated.
Key words: All-Russian Service for Disaster Medicine Headquarters, All-Russian Service for Disaster Medicine, emergency situations, liquidation of medical and sanitary consequences, medical care
2. Suvorov S.G., Rozinov V.M. Children’s Fatality in Road Traffic Accidents. Organizational Aspects of Medical Care
The results of analysis of information on 623 children’s deaths in road traffic accidents in the territory of 6 subjects of the Russian Federation in 2006-2008 are presented. It is found that over half of the victims died in prehospital period while the overwhelming majority (76.1%) of those who died in hospitals was treated in healthcare facilities where personnel and whole infrastructure were unfit for specialized medical care of children with severe mechanical traumas. The authors are of opinion that better outcomes prospects depend mostly on shorter delivery time to specialized medical care facilities.
Key words: children, medical care delivery organization, road traffic accidents, road traffic injuries
3. Zemlyannikov D.A., Avetisov G.M. Issues of Radiological Protection of Specialists of Emergency Rescue Formations of Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation
The results are presented of practical testing of experimental prototypes of specialized medical kits for specialists of emergency rescue formations of the Ministry of Defense of Russia. The kits are produced by Scientific Production Center “Farmzashchita”. The tests have shown that the kits facilitate delivery of sufficient and early medical care to specialists of formations performing their professional duties.
Key words: accidents, field medical radiation kit, individual radiation first-aid kit, Ministry of Defense of Russia, nuclear materials, special complex drills “Avarija-2013”, specialists of emergency rescue formations, specialized medical kits
CLINICAL ASPECTS OF DISASTER MEDICINE
4. Miziev I.A., Makhov M.Kh., Zhigunov A.K., Khatshukov A.Kh., Dabagov O.Yu., Akhkubekov R.A., Kardanov A.V. Personal Prognosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Concomitant Trauma
The possibilities are studied of detection of acute kidney injury, preclinical kidney disorders, and subclinical acute kidney injury in patients with concomitant trauma with use of high value endogenic marker cystatin C. The level of cystatin C and blood serum biomedical measurements in 60 patients with concomitant trauma are analyzed.
Key words: acute kidney injury, concomitant trauma, cystatin C, personal prognosis, preclinical kidney disorders, subclinical acute kidney injury
5. Petlakh V.I. Results of Use of Local Hemostatics in Disaster Medicine
The specific character of activity of medical formations in emergency situations mean particular requirements for efficient and early hemostasis. The characteristics of local hemostatics are presented as well as their classification and efficiency of imported and home-made preparations. The special attention is paid to those ones tried in emergency surgery in battle environment.
Key words: disaster medicine, emergency situations, emergency surgery, hemostasis, local hemostatics, major bleeding
6. Kudryavtsev B.P., Yakovenko L.M. «Whiplash Injury» in Road Traffic Accident
Diagnostics and principles of medical care delivery at prehospital stage to casualties with cervical spine trauma (whiplash injury) with traumagenesis considerations are presented. The main rules of medical evacuation of casualties are stated. It is shown that injuries of neck and its organs in road traffic accidents happen in 2.5% of trauma cases.
It is stressed that at the accident site and during the first twenty-four hours after the accident 90.9% of those casualties die. It indicates the high severity of injuries of the area as well as the necessity of timely and correct diagnosis and of remedial measures at early stages of medical care.
Key words: cervical spine trauma, diagnostics, emergency medical care delivery, prehospital stage, road traffic accidents, traumagenesis, whiplash injury
7. Yarmolich V.A., Raevsky A.A., Matkava M.I. Experience of Activity of Psychophysiological Support Laboratory of Territorial Center for Disaster Medicine of Volgograd Oblast
Experience of activity of Psychophysiological Support Laboratory of Territorial Center for Disaster Medicine of Volgograd Oblast in 2004-2014 is presented. The main directions of work of the laboratory and the main contingents of the Center personnel subject to psychophysiological control are discussed. The Laboratory activity in environments of daily routine, of state of readiness and in emergency situation is analyzed.
Key words: casualties, consulting, emergency situations, primary professional selection, psychological care, psychophysiological control, Psychophysiological Support Laboratory, psychophysiological working capacity examination, territorial center for disaster medicine, Volgograd Oblast
8. Neroev V.V., Bykov V.P., Kataev M.G., Kvasha O.I., Lugovkina K.V., Al-Daravish J.A. Some Aspects of Clinical Picture and Treatment of Modern Bullet Wounds of Visual Organ
A retrospective analysis of case histories (2010-2012) of 141 patients with missile wounds of visual organ from different types of weapons is presented. Standard ophthalmological examination as well as X-ray methods and spiral computed tomography were used. Conservative and surgical treatments were used. Many patients needed later new plastic and reconstructive operations. The conclusion is drawn that management tactics and the outcome depend on bullet presence, its localization, and extent of damage. Indications for bullet extraction surgery are strictly individual.
Key words: anophthalm, eye socket, modern bullet wounds, plastic and reconstructive operations, visual organ
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EMERGENCY CONSULTATIVE MEDICAL CARE PROVISION AND OF MEDICAL EVACUATION
9. Samylov A.V. Emergency Consultative Medical Care Delivery with Use of Telemedical Technologies in Health Service System of Kirov Oblast
The experience of introduction of telemedical technologies into health care practice of Kirov Oblast is presented. The structure of unified telemedical consultative-diagnostic system set up in the territory of the Oblast in 2010-2013 is analyzed. The functions are discussed of consultative-diagnostic center, coordination-technological center and of other elements of the system. The information is given on the number of off-line telemedical consultations and of on-line video conferences from January 2012 through September 2014.
The problems are shown whose solution shall promote further development and regular use of telemedical technologies.
Key words: emergency consultative medical care, emergency situations, health service, Kirov Oblast, telemedical consultations, telemedical technologies, unified telemedical consultative-diagnostic system, video conference sessions
EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF PERSONNEL
10. Ivleva N.V. Experience of Realization of New Educational Standards of Medical College Students Training in Disaster Medicine
The experience is presented of introduction of active and interactive training methods in Orlov base medical college including solving of medical-tactic, problem, diagnostic, differential diagnostic, case tasks and staging business games in the process of realization of Federal state standard of new generation intermediate vocational education in the field of disaster medicine.
Legally fixed professional competencies that should be met by corresponding skills of paramedical workers are described. The definition of professional competencies of paramedical workers is given. Some examples of training task solutions with brief solution methodics are given (concrete case, business game and so on).
Key words: active and interactive training methods, business game, case study, disaster medicine, Federal state standard of intermediate vocational education, pragmatist-oriented organization of training activity, professional competencies, task solution method
11. Davydenko V.V., Nechaev A.Yu., Brazhnikova E.N., Zabivalova N.M., Domorad A.A., Syrovnev V.A. Efficiency of Hemostatic Means «Гемофлекс®Комбат» on Model of Experimental Arterial and Venous Hemorrhage in Animals
A higher hemostatic efficiency and hemostasis stability with use of «Гемофлекс®Комбат» hemostatic means compared to «ГемостопТМ» is demonstrated on the model of external arterial and venous hemorrhage in animals (Large White breed of pigs). The bactericidal effect of the means in relation of S.aureus, E.coli, S.pyogenes, C.albicans and Myc.smegmatis is proved.
Key words: application hemostatic means, bactericidal effect, bleeding control at prehospital stage, hemostasis, hemostatic means «Гемофлекс®Комбат», pigs
12. Zakrevsky Yu.N., Matveev R.P. Specifics of Freezing Injury and Combined Mechanic-Freezing Injury in Sea Disasters: Literature Review
A literature review is presented on the issues of pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of isolated freezing injury and combined mechanic-freezing injury in sea disasters. Physiological reactions of organism in cold water, cold shock, diving reflex, heart rhythm disturbance and hypothermia determine the peculiarities of clinical picture of freezing injury and mechanic-freezing injury and specifics of rescue operations, medical care of victims in the process of evacuation and their hospital treatment
Key words: combined mechanic-freezing injury, isolated freezing injury, management tactics, sea disasters, survival rate
13. Kazantsev V.P. Service for Disaster Medicine of Republic of Altai: History of Setting Up and Development
The history of setting up and formation of the Service for Disaster Medicine and the Center for Disaster Medicine of the Republic of Altai is presented.
The main directions and the results of their activity in a number of years are discussed. It is noted that the Center and first aid station have formed one legal entity on January 1, 2013. The results of the act are analyzed.
Key words: casualties, Center for Disaster Medicine, emergency consultative medical care and medical evacuation ward, emergency situations, first aid station, Republic of Altai, road traffic accidents, Service for Disaster Medicine
14. Oliynyk P.V. Conceptual Model of System of Pharmaceutical Support of Population
in Emergency Situation Environment
The conceptual model of a system of pharmaceutical support of population of Ukraine in emergency situations is discussed. The organizational structure of the system is substantiated. It stipulates presence of three main subsystems: administration subsystem, subsystem of accumulation and storage of drug inventory, subsystem of drug production and realization.
Key words: administration subsystem, emergency situations, pharmaceutical support system, population, subsystem of accumulation and storage of drug inventory, subsystem of drug production and realization, Ukraine
15. Shkarin V.V., Yarmolich V.A., Galushkin V.G. Experience of Sanitary Aviation Evacuation of Road Traffic Accident Casualty by An-2 Plane in Volgograd Oblast
The experience of organization and carrying out of sanitary aviation evacuation of a road traffic accident casualty by An-2 plane in Volgograd Oblast is presented.
Key words: casualty, road traffic accident, sanitary aviation evacuation, Volgograd Oblast